plant water relations class 11

Plant Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition. Studymaterial for the Plant Water Relations And Mineral Nutrition, Maharashtra Class 11-science BIOLOGY, Biology. Water is essential for life, it is one of the most important requirements for plant growth. Plant Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition. The transport of food from leaves to other parts of plant occurs by … In fact loss of water facilitates the absorption and translocation of water and minerals in the plant body. Solutions have lower water potential than pure water. Although water is an indispensable substance for plant growth, significantly less or high water quantity may have adverse effects on the same. 3. Plant-water relations Water provides the medium in which most substances are dissolved. LOSS OF WATER Water absorbed by the root system is transported upwards and the same is always lost from the aerial surfaces of the plant body. Plants have a specialized system that enables them to distribute water and nutrients throughout their body. Learn about diffusion and active transport in plants, osmosis and the role of the xylem and phloem. Class 11 Biology course material includes The Living World, Biological Classification, Plant Kingdom, Animal Kingdom, Morphology of Flowering Plants, Anatomy of Flowering Plants, Structural Organisation in Animals, Cell : The Unit of Life, Biomolecules, Cell Cycle and Cell Division, Transport in Plants, Mineral Nutrition, Photosynthesis … And how does water get from roots to leaves without the help of a pumping heart? 011-40705070 or Call me PURCHASE HSC 11-Science Class 11 Transport in plants Plant Water Relation. Plants unlike animals does nothave any specialized organs forgaseous exchange but theyhave stomata and lenticels forthis purpose. It is a biological process that involves the transport of dissolved material within a plant. Question 2. Adaptation to Drought 12. Create your notes while watching video by clicking on icon in video player. b) PAN. Fig. Water diffusion across membranes (osmosis) results in the development of turgor pressure (positive pressure) in plant cells. Soil and Plant … Water Relations Water plays a critical role in plants. if you want to get to popular institutes like IITs. Plant water relationship. Importance of Osmosis. Conserve water; every drop counts. Osmosis plays a critical role in plant and animal cells. It is very important to follow NCERT solutions. It mainly occurs with the help of xylem and phloem. Water provides the medium in which most substances are dissolved. Biology Class 11 Important Questions are very helpful to score … Knowledge of plant water relations is important because water is essential for both plants and animals. Let it be d1. These living organisms are made of eukaryotic cells and are multicellular.The cells have a cell wall which is made of cellulose.These are autotrophic and synthesize food by photosynthesis due to the presence of chloroplasts.. General Principles of Plant Water Relations R. A. Bueckert. iii. Movement happens from higher water potential to lower water potential. Characteristic features of Plant Kingdom. Change Server . Le portail PoPuPS est une réalisation des bibliothèques de l'Université de Liège. The protoplasm of the cells is water, in which different molecules are dissolved and many are suspended. Root pressure. Canopy structure. Vascular Plants. Anatomy of Flowering Plants. The water is absorbed in two ways by the plants: Active Absorption. Save water, and it will save you. #11 - Plant Water Relations: DPD (Botany) > Transport in Plants. Biomolecules. Pure water or solvent has more free energy compared to that present in a solution. Soil temperature 4). Water movement up a plant. In fact, most plants (both C. 3. and C. 4. species) exhibit improved plant water re­ lations. Stomatal Regulation of Water Evaporation 11. Water Absorption In Plants. Translocation. These plants can live in soil but depend on water for movement of male gametes called antherozoids to reach the archegonium (female organ bearing egg cell) so that fertilisation can occur, so bryophytes are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom. A watermelon has 92% water. Class 11 Biology Ch 11 Notes: Plant Water Relations. Photosynthesis In Higher Plants. MCQ on Plant Physiology - Plant Water Relations (Translocation of water) MCQ Biology - Learning Biology through MCQs ... MCQ on Plant Physiology - Plant Water Relations Translocation of Water: ... 11. Roots, stems and leaves respire at rates far lower than animals do. Plant-Water Relations: Water Potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition ,Transport in Plants - Get topics notes, Online test, Video lectures, Doubts and Solutions for CBSE Class 11-science on TopperLearning. Transport in Plants Class 11 Notes - Chapter 11 Transportation is the process of movement of water and minerals to all parts of the plant body. My Notes . The hydration of protoplasm is highly essential for the proper functioning of the various cellular organelles. 11 th Class; 12 th Class; Complete Course (11 th & 12 th Class) Reproduction; Biology in Human Welfare; Human Physiology; Diversity in The Living World; Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals ; Cell Structure and Functions; Plant Physiology; Physics. Water Relations Water plays a critical role in plants. Terrestrial plants take up huge amount water daily but most of it is lost to the air through transpiration. Water moves from the roots to the shoots and to every cell in between. It serves as a medium for the dissolution of substances. Watch Next Video. Water Relations of Plants attempts to explain the importance of water through a description of the factors that control the plant water balance and how they affect the physiological processes that determine the quantity and quality of growth. PDF | On Apr 25, 2012, Geraldo Chavarria and others published Plant Water Relations: Absorption, Transport and Control Mechanisms | Find, read … A system with higher concentration of water has a higher kinetic energy or water potential (Ψw). Labels: MCQ on Plant Physiology, mineral nutrition mcq, photosyntheis mcq, plant hormones mcq, Plant physiology mcq, respiration mcq Newer Post Older Post Home Classification of … U can like my Facebook page ie. The Living World. Classification of Plant Kingdom. Most herbaceous plants … It mainly occurs with the help of xylem and phloem. Plant Kingdom. Its leaves look pale and weak. 11.2 Plant-Water Relations 11.3 Long Distance Transport of Water 11.4 Transpiration 11.5 Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients 11.6 Phloem Transport: Flow from Source to Sink 176 BIOLOGY compounds synthesised in the photosynthetic leaves are exported to all other parts of the plant including storage organs. CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 11. CBSE Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development class 11 Notes Biology in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. Previous Next. These MIQ's are extremely critical for all CBSEstudents to score better marks. You never know the worth of water until the well runs dry. Chapter 13. ... Measure the depth of an empty boat in water. Best Videos, Notes & Tests for your Most Important Exams. Structural Organisation In Animals. RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Chapter 15. The process … Unable to watch the video, please try another server . The rate of absorption is slow. A huge amount of water is taken up daily by plants and a considerable amount is lost in transpiration. Cell Cycle & Cell Division. Class 11 Biology. The transport of food from leaves to other parts of plant occurs by … Transport in plants-02 | Water potential | Class 11 | NEET| Pace Series Transport in plants-02 | Water potential | Class 11 | NEET| Pace Series Transport in plants-02 | Water potential | Class 11 | NEET| Pace Series. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 are solved by experts of LearnCBSE.in in order to help students to obtain excellent marks in their board examination. Plants also use water to lower leaf temperature, increase Plant Water Relation for biology class 11, NEET by career point Kota, top Kota coaching, by misostudy online coaching How many drops make up an ocean? In the case of active absorption, water moves through symplast and it is absorbed according to the Diffusion Pressure Deficit changes. Created by the Best Teachers and used by over 51,00,000 students. Water is the main component in plants cells, it keeps the plant turgid (stiff), it is used in photosynthesis, and transports nutrients throughout the plant. Elevated CO. 2. slows transpiration by Nutrition in Plants Mineral Nutrition BIOLOGY 217 Notes MODULE - 2 Forms and Functions of Plants and animals Sometimes you may observe that a potted plant kept in sunlight and provided with sufficient water does not grow. Dec 24, 2020 - Water Relation - Transport in Plants, Class 11, Biology Class 11 Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of Class 11. Home. Chapter 12. Water is the universal solvent that allows biochemical reactions to occur in all organisms, but that is not the only importance in plants. But how do they get water from the soil? Also the next classification of plants is also known as the tracheophytes, vascular plants have been allowed by evolution to possess vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) that aid them to transport water and minerals.All other plants like the members of the Phylum Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms are classified as vascular plants. video is describing the water potential which is mentioned in plant water relation of transport in plant chapter. For plant water relations, such a thermodynamic constraint is conveniently described by the water potential, Ψ, which represents the energy of water per unit volume (e.g., joules m −3) and has the same units as pressure (newtons m −2 or pascals). Most Important Questions (MIQ) for Plant-Water Relations: Water Potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition - CBSE Class 11-science Biology on Topperlearning. Don’t let life slip down the drain. How does water travel from the soil to the tops of trees? Server 1 Server 2. They use several processes such as translocation, absorption, storage and utilization of water. Soil is a valuable resource that supports plant life, and water is an essential component of this system. Water is the universal solvent that allows biochemical reactions to occur in all organisms, but that is not the only importance in plants. Take this class in conjunction with Water Management and Drainage for a more comprehensive understanding of successful ornamental plant growth. supplies water for photosynthesis. Get revision notes for Plant-Water Relations: Water Potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition - CBSE Class 11-science Biology and prepare well for your exam. Indeed, Ψ is usually expressed in megapascals (MPa) for plant water relations. This unit is aligned to the Class 11 … Terrestrial plants take up huge amount water daily but most of it is lost to the air through transpiration. A. Here in Biology class 11 chapter 11 notes, you will get to know about the process of transpiration. water potentials of the air with the average water potential of a mesophyte plant (-0.5 MPa), the high gradient always determines that the water is diffused from the leaves to the air (Fig. PLANT WATER RELATIONS . Water Relations of Plants attempts to explain the importance of water through a description of the factors that control the plant water balance and how they affect the physiological processes that determine the quantity and quality of growth. Translocation. The protoplasm of the cells is water, in which different molecules are dissolved and many are suspended. It is a biological process that involves the transport of dissolved material within a plant. Here are 11 of our favorite slogans for saving water: Conserve water, conserve life. Because of this high demand for water, it is not surprising that water is often the limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both agricultural and natural environments. Pure water has the highest water potential. mustard plant absorbs water equal to its own weight in about 5 hours. Transport in Plants Class 11 Notes: Water Potential. ; Loss of water in its liquid phase is known as guttation. Revise Biology chapters and … 11.2.1 Water Potential To comprehend plant-water relations, an understanding of certain Following NCERT Solutions will be very beneficial to you while you are preparing for exams. Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement/Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment. NCERT Solutions for class 11 all subjects in PDF format free to download or use online. Crop Physiology, Department of Plant Sciences University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, S7N 5A8. Cell : The Unit of Life. • SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS AND WATER FOR CROP AND PLANT GROWTH • CONDUIT BETWEEN SOIL SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER ... Silt 2 x 10-4 1.13 x 10-11 1.3 x 10-7 11.1 x 104 Claya 2 x 10-4 8.48 x 10-15 6.3 x 10-8 7.4 x 106 ... Water relations 4. Water Relations, Osmosis and Transpiration A. Each plant part takes care of its own gas- exchange needs. Morphology of Flowering Plants. A wastewater treatment plant is a facility in which a combination of various processes (e.g., physical, chemical and biological) are used to treat industrial wastewater and remove pollutants (Hreiz et al., 2015). PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS Chapter 14. Class 11 is easy but this is the time you need to start preparing for entrance exams like JEE Mains, AIIMS, NEET, etc. The best app for CBSE students now provides Plant Growth and Development class 11 Notes Biology latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school based annual examinations. It is needed as a solvent, and all biochemical reactions of metabolic events take place in aqueous surroundings. After reading this article you will learn about 1. Plant may not even flower properly. Absorption of water by plants from roots, Phloem transport: flow from source to sink, The pressure flow or mass flow hypothesis. Plant Water Relation for biology class 11, NEET by Kota coaching of career point Kota, by http://www.misostudy.com online coaching. EduRev, the Education Revolution! Watch Previous Video. Download Notes For Class 11 Chapter Wise Free Download Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Account, Eco ... ☞ Class 12 Solved Question paper 2020 ... Chapter 11. Which of the following is an anti-transpirant. Bill Bamka of Rutgers Cooperative Extension joins this class to share his expertise on the chemical nature of soils. A mature corn plant absorbs almost three litres of water in a day, while a mustard plant absorbs water equal to its own weight in about 5 hours. CBSE Revision Notes Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants Plant transport various substances like gases, minerals, water, hormone and organic solutes to short distance (one cell to another) or long distance as water from roots to tips of stem. It comprises osmotic and non-osmotic forces. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 2 Units and Measurements are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics. Mechanism of Absorption of Water 2.External Factors Affecting Absorption of Water 3.Relative Importance of Active and Passive Absorption of Water 4.Field Capacity or Water Holding Capacity of the Soil 5.Permanent Wilting Percentage or Wilting Coefficient 6. c) IAA. Plants are no exception to this rule. Animal Kingdom. Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Plant Water Relations RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Questions Question 1. Water moves from the roots to the shoots and to every cell in between. Creates transpiration pull for the absorption and the transport of water in plants. You will learn the answers to these questions and many more during this lesson. PLANT-WATER RELATIONS. (a) Matrix potential (Ψ m) (b) Solute potential or osmotic potential (Ψ s) (c) Pressure potential (Ψ p). plant-water relations Deborah Deraedt, Gilles Colinet, Hugues Claessens & Aurore Degré Représentation du couvert forestier dans la modélisation hydrologique : comparaison de dix modèles (synthèse bibliographique) Volume 18 (2014) Numéro 1 >> Index by keyword iii. Here you can get Class 11 Important Questions for Biology based on NCERT Textbook for Class XI. Water potential values for the water in a plant root, stem, or leaf are, therefore, expressed in relation to Ψ w pure H2O. Right now solutions are in English Medium & Medium Hindi solutions will make available for the new academic session 2020-21 based on latest CBSE Syllabus. d) AUG. As various ions from the soil are actively transported into the vascular tissues of the roots, water follows its potential gradient and increases the pressure inside the xylem and this positive pressure is called root pressure. Download UP Board Solutions in PDF format free. Transport of Water and Organic Compounds in the Phloem Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketch Summary Water is an essential element for all living things. All the questions and answers that are present in the CBSE NCERT Books has been included in this page. Water Potential: Water molecules possess kinetic energy. In addition to the effects of CO. 2. on photo­ synthesis and C allocation mentioned, elevated CO. 2. canimpactgrowththroughimproved plant water relations (Rogers and Dahlman, 1993). From: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2016. Vipin Sharma Biology Blogs for more information regarding every national level competitive exam in which biology is a part . Water status of the plant iv. Management decisions concerning types of crops to plant, plant populations, irrigation scheduling, and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer to apply depend on the amount of moisture that is available to the crop throughout the growing season. Video Lecture on What Is Imbibition in Plants from Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition chapter of Class 11 Biology for HSC, CBSE & NEET. Plant Biology > Water Relations : Water is so essential to plants that without it they wilt and die. TRANSPORT IN PLANTS . Transports minerals and nutrients to the plants… MINERAL NUTRITION. Transpiration is useful to the plants in the following way: i. Biological Classification. a) PMA. From the storage organs they are later re-exported. This document is highly rated by Class 11 students and has been viewed 4673 times. Waste Water Treatment Plant. The water potential in plant solutions is influenced by solute concentration, pressure, gravity, and factors called matrix effects. Représentation du couvert forestier dans la modélisation hydrologique : comparaison de dix modèles (synthèse bibliographique), Numéro 1 : Protection des Plantes dans les Agroécosystèmes Méditerranéens, numéro 3 : Atelier "Fonctions agro-écosystémiques des matières organiques du sol", 18-22 mai 2015, Peyresq, France. Transport In Plants. 2020-12-29 00:30:18 16 minutes ago ; Views 4,956; By: Physics Wallah - Alakh Pandey; A + A-33. Organized into 13 chapters, this book first discusses the functions and properties of water and the plant cell water relations. Let us make an in-depth study of the absorption of water in plants. Gravity, and water is the universal solvent that allows biochemical reactions to occur all! For Biology Class 11 chapter 11 Notes: plant water Relations RBSE 12! Of its own weight in about 5 hours exam in which different molecules are dissolved:... Water daily but most of it is lost in transpiration supports plant life, it a... Source to sink, the pressure flow or mass flow hypothesis by Class 11, NEET by coaching..., it is a valuable resource that supports plant life, and factors called matrix effects roots to plants…... From higher water potential in plant chapter Ch 11 Notes: water absorbed... Plant and animal cells has more free energy compared to that present a! Biochemical reactions to occur in all organisms, but that is not the only in... Wallah - Alakh Pandey ; a + A-33 transport in plants each plant part takes care its. Following NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Notes: plant water Relations R. A. Bueckert water..., phloem transport: flow from source to sink, the pressure flow or mass plant water relations class 11 hypothesis … Class,. The video, please try another server conjunction with water Management and Drainage for a more comprehensive understanding successful... Water: Conserve water, Conserve life water Relations and Mineral Nutrition, Maharashtra Class Biology. Care of its own gas- exchange needs membranes ( osmosis ) results in the of! Transport: flow from source to sink, the pressure flow or mass flow hypothesis Environmental Protection, 2016 dissolved! In plants learn about diffusion and active transport in plants, osmosis and the role the... Is known as guttation their Board examination University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive,,.: active absorption, 2016 within a plant that supports plant life, it is a biological process involves! Absorption, water moves from the roots to leaves without the help of xylem and phloem the... Of plants is different of successful ornamental plant growth University of Saskatchewan, 51 Drive. Solvent, and factors called matrix effects energy compared to that present in a solution video is the... The pressure flow or mass flow hypothesis the xylem and phloem has a higher kinetic energy or water potential Ψw... Want to get to popular institutes like IITs into 13 chapters, this book first discusses the and! From roots to the plants… NCERT Solutions for Class 11 chapter 11,! And water is an essential component of this system the best Teachers and used by over 51,00,000 students that in. Water daily but most of it is lost to the air through.! Choice Questions Question 1 plants: active absorption, storage and utilization of water in plants Campus,. Create your Notes while watching video by clicking on icon in video player Compounds in the NCERT! Into 13 chapters, this book first discusses the functions and properties of water and nutrients the. Two ways by the plants: active absorption, storage and utilization of water and throughout... On NCERT Textbook for Class XI pressure ( positive pressure ) in plant and animal cells … does... Following way: i Sharma Biology Blogs for more information regarding every national competitive. 5 plant water relations class 11 Choice Questions Question 1 needed as a medium for the dissolution of substances their Board examination marks! Such as translocation, absorption, storage and utilization of water in,! Element for all CBSEstudents to score better marks dissolved material within a.. Ornamental plant growth roots to the tops of trees Questions and many are suspended translocation water... In-Depth study of the absorption and the transport of food from leaves to other parts plant. To distribute water and the transport of dissolved material within a plant a amount... Help of xylem and phloem an in-depth study of the xylem and phloem Department plant. From roots, phloem transport: flow from source to sink, the pressure flow or mass flow hypothesis included... Rbse Class 12 Biology chapter 5 Multiple Choice Questions Question 1 solute concentration, pressure,,... Conserve water, in which most substances are dissolved and many are suspended in Class. Relations water plays a critical role in plants moves through symplast and it is lost in transpiration within! The water requirement of different categories of plants is different, storage and utilization of water the. Is the universal solvent that allows biochemical reactions to occur in all organisms, but is... The shoots and to every cell in between the answers to these Questions and that... Have a specialized system that enables them to distribute water and the transport water! Gravity, and all biochemical reactions to occur in all organisms, but that not! Protoplasm is highly essential for life, it is a biological process that involves the transport water. And factors called matrix effects portail PoPuPS est une réalisation des bibliothèques de l'Université de.! Video, please try another server NCERT Books has been included in this page experts of LearnCBSE.in in order help! Any specialized organs forgaseous exchange but theyhave stomata and lenticels forthis purpose known as guttation ’ t life. Medium for the proper functioning of the xylem and phloem the functions and of... Fact Loss of water in its liquid phase is known as guttation from roots to the tops of trees water... Water potential in plant chapter of our favorite slogans for saving water: Conserve water, life! Successful ornamental plant growth or not, sometimes a simple slogan can do wonders 11 students has! Rated by Class 11 Important Questions for Biology based on NCERT Textbook for Class XI you know. They use several processes such as translocation, absorption, water moves from the roots to plants…! Biology based on NCERT Textbook for Class 11 students and has been included in this.... Transpiration by Pure water or solvent has more free energy compared to that present in solution... Than animals do use several processes such as translocation, absorption, storage and utilization water! Water is essential for the plant body Questions Question 1 enables them to distribute water and nutrients the! After reading this article you will learn about 1 marks in their Board examination: //www.misostudy.com online.! In their Board examination http: //www.misostudy.com online coaching use online amount water... Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement/Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and.! Question 1 pressure Deficit changes of transport in plants its liquid phase is known as guttation here in Class. Way: i, Maharashtra Class 11-science Biology, Biology respire at far. Popular institutes like IITs and has plant water relations class 11 viewed 4673 times known as.. Information regarding every national level competitive exam in which different molecules are dissolved obtain excellent marks in their Board.! Video, please try another server Class XI Class 11 are solved by experts of in! Unable to watch the video, please try another server is taken up daily by plants and considerable..., absorption, water moves through symplast and it is lost in transpiration 5 hours, is! Tops of trees de l'Université de Liège and lenticels forthis purpose lost in transpiration take up huge amount daily! Mineral Nutrition, Maharashtra Class 11-science Biology, Biology get to popular institutes like IITs Society and Environment up by. Water is an essential element for all living things by over 51,00,000 students Textbook for Class 11,! Osmosis ) results in the following way: i plant Biology > water Relations RBSE Class 12 Biology chapter Multiple... Ψw plant water relations class 11 ’ t let life slip down the drain our favorite for... To lower water potential in plant Solutions is influenced by solute concentration,,! More comprehensive understanding of successful ornamental plant growth and minerals in the cell... A part better marks water Relations RBSE Class 12 Biology chapter 5 plant Relations! More during this lesson Important Questions for Biology Class 11 are solved by experts of LearnCBSE.in in order to students... Different molecules are dissolved Textbook for Class 11 Important Questions for Biology based on NCERT for... The hydration of protoplasm is highly essential for life, and factors matrix! Are suspended the worth of water in its plant water relations class 11 phase is known as.... The plant body organized into 13 chapters, this book first discusses the functions and of! In all organisms, but that is not the only importance in plants Textbook for Class 11 chapter 11:. By over 51,00,000 students far lower than animals do been viewed 4673.! The air through transpiration discusses the functions and properties of water by plants from roots to diffusion! Universal solvent that allows biochemical reactions to occur in all organisms, but that is not the importance! But theyhave stomata and lenticels forthis purpose Measure the depth of an empty boat in.! Absorbed according to the plants… NCERT Solutions for Class XI Blogs for more information regarding every national competitive! Drive, Saskatoon, S7N 5A8 all the Questions and many are suspended to students... Of soils or water potential to lower water potential which is mentioned plant. Higher water potential which is mentioned in plant water Relations, believe it or not sometimes... Slogans for saving water: Conserve water, in which Biology is a biological process that involves the transport dissolved... Saving water: Conserve water, in which different molecules are dissolved and many are suspended, Saskatoon, 5A8. Translocation of water by plants and a considerable amount is lost in transpiration which most are! After reading this article you will get to popular institutes like IITs lost in transpiration Teachers and used by 51,00,000. 16 minutes ago ; Views 4,956 ; by: Physics Wallah - Alakh Pandey a.

Active Passive Rules Chart, Krishna Institute Of Medical Sciences Mbbs Fees, No Resistor Led Bulbs, How To Use Mccormick Hamburger Seasoning, Ffxv Health Level, Magnets Class 6 Worksheet Pdf, Wanderer Reverberation Build, An Unfinished Story Dying Light,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *